Grand Tour

grand 1Year after year always more and more many students of my school decide to experience a student exchange programme in order to improve their knowledge of a foreign language. The destinations may range from the English-speaking countries like the U.S.A., Ireland, England, Australia  to the more exotic ones like Japan, China or Taiwan. At first they are convinced it will be only a matter of studying in a new school, changing habits for a while and why not, enjoying the exciting flavour of independence, to understand very soon that they have been involved in something more complex than simply learning a language. I want to use the words of one of my students to explain it, who, once invited to report about her one year experience in Taiwan, was happy to say with such eager eyes that she felt like having lived a whole life in that year and even more.

grand 3Sterne would have called it a “Sentimental Journey“, where sentimental refers to those emotions that arise from both the vision of a new landscape and the confrontation with completely different habits and cultures. The belief that travelling was a fundamental step for the “Bildung” of an adolescent is not something new, but it was rooted more or less in the seventeenth century, when it became fashionable among the young offspring of European aristocracy, artists and cultivated men to undertake a travel to Italy or better a “Tour“. The term “tour” replaced “travel” or “journey” as it marked the peculiar nature of this kind of voyaging, which was particularly long and broad, with start and finish in the same place. Many countries were visited but the dream destination was Italy.

grand 4In 1670, Richard Lassels coined in his “Italian Voyage” the expression “Grand Tour” a neologism that would have been universally adopted since then. For the “grandtourists” Italy was a mythical place, an open-air museum where the climate was always sunny and bright and nature wild, uncontaminated. The wealth of its archaeological sites, the legacy of Renaissance, the extraordinary musical vein were powerful appeals, but that was the myth as the reality these travelers found was very often quite disappointing.Impoverished countryisde, lifeless ports  and towns, dusty cultural activities and political institutions that seemed so rusted if compared to the more advanced European models, especially those in England. Goethe, who  had toured Italy for a couple of years, marked the contradictions of the country in his “Italianishe Reisen”  and in a second trip to Italy 1790 he sentenced: “Italy is still as I left it, still dust on the roads, still cheating habit. If you look for German honesty, you will look in vain.There is liveliness here, but no order and discipline. everybody thinks only of itself,  politicians included…..” uhmmm, if he could see Italy today, I think he would use more or less the same words. However, despite some bad reviews, the Italian seduction still worked.

grand 5The phenomenon, in fact, became wider and rich travelers had the habit of touring in the company of valets, doctors, musicians, painters. The Earl of Burlington , Richard Boyle, arrived in Italy with fifteen people besides his  gardener and accountant, Lady Marguerite Blessington used to travel on double spring carriages provided with mattresses and pillows and William Beckford, the son of a wealthy London merchant, was accompanied in his second trip to Italy by the artist JR Cozens, the Rev. John Lettice, his guardian and factotum, the doctor  Projectus Errhardt, the harpsichordist John Burton and by such a large party of friends that once in  Augusta he was mistaken for the Emperor of Austria. An anonymous traveler wrote: “this travel mania is so widespread, that there is not one wealthy citizen that doesn’t  wish to enjoy the beauties of Germany, France and Italy”. Furthermore the new extraordinary archaeological discoveries of Herculaneum (1738) and Pompei (1748) had enriched the itineraries of the “grandtourists”.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, with the modernization of society (new roads and railways, industrialization) the new generations of “grandtourists” seemed to have less time and money at their disposal. The length of the “tours” started to shorten and the new travelling rhythms  were signs of  the impoverishment of those cultural aspirations which had characterized them for more than a century. Travelling became less “sentimental” and more diversion, a sequence of organized information rather than a personal discovery. Hence these students, who have had the chance to experience the world just like the “grand tourists” used to do, are the last, fortunate “romantics”.

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Primitive modernity


I’ve always been of the opinion that Sterne would have been wonderfully at ease with modern means of communications: his great irony and wit would have made him a great blogger, for sure, but I can also figure him out facebooking or texting, making a large use emoticons. I am convinced that he would have had enjoyed scattering emoticons everywhere across his ” The Life and Opinion of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman”  along with the hyphens, dashes, asterisks, crosses and symbols that characterize his writing style. He soon understood, in fact, that signs had a quick and powerful impact on the mind of readers, and he used plenty of them in the effort of exploring the newest and most effective communicative ways. The reader is so central that very often becomes a character among the characters without a definite script that people Sterne’s novel. We are invited to draw our ideas or share his feelings, whether of joy or sorrow, or furthermore he demands our attention whenever he is about to say something important. We become part of the fictitious world just like sometimes it happens in the stagings of some modern plays. But Sterne was twice modern. He was the first one to focus his attention not only on the life of his protagonist, but on his “opinions”, that is: his mind. He instinctively understood that if he wanted to deal with our mental processes, he should sacrifice the most important pillar of the novel as it had been till then: chronological time. In our mind past, present and future co-exist and our thoughts are mostly linked by association, so Tristram Shandy could not have been a well structured novel. It is actually impossible to draw its plot: the preface is unusually placed in third chapter, he is the ironic judge and spectator of his own conception in the first one, any attempt of narration is interrupted by digressions and associations, he decides to jump from page 146 to 156 on account of missing chapter 24 – he didn’t feel like writing it –  etc. Sterne, therefore, succeeded in representing the chaos of our mind on paper in a rather primitive way, as he didn’t have the support of psychoanalysis thus becoming the forefather of modern novel.I like him. 🙂

The novel recipe


As everybody knows, those  writers who are commonly regarded as the fathers of the English novel started to write their masterpieces late in their life. They were in their fifties or sixties at least, that is after having done or seen much. They just experimented novel writing. So let’s figure out, one day Daniel Defoe took ink and paper and, while sipping a nice cup of tea, set to work and……..nothing, blank. Certainly, he had a great writing experience and skill as journalist, but writing novels was something else. It was not about drawing up articles any longer, but rather creating an organic structure where his characters could move and interact for many pages. There was no psychoanalysis to help him, so the simple ingredients he used were: an interesting subject, space, time. For what concerns the first ingredient he was very lucky, because he was witness of an age of great changes where the middle class was growing in importance thanks to trade and new politics. So if we believe that literature is the mirror of the times, in that mirror Defoe saw the image of a bourgeous hero reflected: Robinson Crusoe. He was perfect: young, middle class, Puritan, slave trader, traveller and sinner too. He was fit for an adventurous story.That was the second ingredient : the world.  He made him travel a lot, shipwreck and then placed him on a desert island where he remained in solitude for a long time before enjoying the company of a cannibal he named Friday. The narration was linear, chronological. But he felt that in those big spaces and with a few chances of human relations he had to do something for his hero so as to avoid the puppet effect, he needed more insight. So Robinson’s diary became part of the novel and his deepest thoughts surfaced on the page. Realism, intimacy, exoticism:a success. But, what happens if we modify the dose of one of those ingredients? If we decide to make our characters act in a smaller space: a house, for example. Very likely the complexity of their personalities will come out better, because the writer will have to deal more with the world inside rather than the world outside. This is exactly what happened in Richardson‘s novels, which are mostly focused on the dynamics inside the family circle and their connections. Furthemore they were written in the epistolary form so the reader was more deeply involved in the agonies of Clarissa or Pamela‘s moral fight between love and proper behaviour. When Sterne decided to write not only about The Life“, that is the chronological sequence of somebody’s events, but also about the Opinions of Tristram Shandy,Gentleman, that is his flux of thoughts, he felt instinctively that time ingredient should have been employed in a complete different way. So, anticipating Bergson‘ s theory of la durée, he understood that in our mind past, present, future co-exist in random order and that the usual chronological sequence was not fit to mirror that chaos in a novel. As no psychoanalists could give him any advice about it, he created that chaos in a rather primitive way. First of all he upset the order of the novel placing the preface is in the third chapter for example, then filled the book with digressions, blank pages, drawings,dashes etc. The experiment was a successful one, because out of all that chaos the delicate complexity of Tristram’s soul materialized. One last thing, no recipes   work without another ingredient, the most important one: “the genious touch”.